March 25: 99 Years Since the Founding of the Communist Party of Brazil (PCB)

The following is an unofficial translation of an article published by the Brazilian revolutionary newspaper A Nova Democracia (AND): “25 de março: 99 anos da fundação do Partido Comunista do Brasil (P.C.B.)

By the Editor-In-Chief of AND

On March 25, 2021, 99 years have passed since the founding of the Communist Party of Brazil (PCB). Inspired by the Great October Socialist Revolution, and together with it the inauguration of a New Age of Humanity—the era of the world proletarian revolution—the Brazilian proletariat launched itself into the arduous and prestigious task of constituting its revolutionary party, the Communist Party.

That was how Astrojildo Pereira, Hermogen da Silva Fernandes, Manoel Cendón, Joaquim Barbosa, Luis Peres, José Elias da Silva, Abílio de Nequete, Cristiano Cordeiro, and João da Costa Pimenta—representing 73 communists spread across different corners of the country—founded, in March 1922 in the city of Niterói (RJ), the Communist Party—Brazilian Section of the Communist International.

Throughout its trajectory, several of its heroic deeds stand out. Among them, the 1935 Popular Armed Uprising, which was the Party’s first attempt to storm the heavens, 13 years after its founding. Another milestone was the split with the revisionist group of Prestes and the reconstruction of the Communist Party of Brazil (with the acronym PCdoB) in 1962, when it truly constituted itself as a Marxist-Leninist party, 40 years after its founding. And, finally, the glorious Araguaia Guerrilla War, when approaching Mao Zedong Thought, proposed the task of starting the People’s War in Brazil.

With the defeat of the Araguaia Guerrilla War and the brutal slaughter of Lapa, in which the leaders Pedro Pomar, Angelo Arroyo, and João Batista Drummond were murdered, the left in the leadership of the Party suffered severe losses, creating the situation for the abandonment of the revolutionary line of the Party of the Protracted People’s War. João Amazonas and his revisionist clique, sabotaging the correct assessment of the experience of Araguaia, led the coup to liquidate the Communist Party of Brazil as a revolutionary party, giving rise to yet another revisionist organization under the continuation of the acronym PCdoB.

Today, the different acronyms of PCdoB, PC Brasileiro, PCR, etc., unite themselves with the same program based in revisionism and electoralism. According to publications provided to us by the Center for the Study of Marxism-Leninism-Maoism (NEMLM), the “Communist Party of Brazil in hiding has been developing for 20 years, led by its Red Fraction, through hard two-line struggles, the process of its reconstitution as a true and authentic Marxist-Leninist-Maoist communist party, a militarized communist party. This period corresponds to the second phase of the third stage of its history, based on the hard struggles against opportunistic lines of right and ‘left’, mainly of the right, revisionist to its core, in all its history and in the assimilation and theoretical-practical incarnation of the third, new, and superior stage of the development of Marxism, that is, Maoism.”

As NEMLM characterizes, “fulfilling this third stage of its history, with the reconstitution of the PCB and the complete victory over revisionism and all opportunism, its fourth stage will open, as the Marxist-Leninist-Maoist Communist Party of Brazil, with the launching of the open struggle through the Protracted People’s War through New Democratic Revolution, uninterrupted to Socialism, serving the World Proletarian Revolution and in the direction of luminous Communism.”

We publish below part of the prologue of the book Problems of the History of the Communist Party of Brazil, from NEMLM.


In Brazil, the struggle for the constitution of the genuine revolutionary party of the proletariat has traversed a long, complex, and difficult path and until today has not managed to achieve its total solution. Since the distant year of 1922, when the pioneering founders of the Communist Party, Brazilian Section of the Communist International, began the march for the constitution of the revolutionary party of the Brazilian proletariat, more than 90 years have passed. Although the course of this struggle has been made up of intense battles, sacrifices, and suffering by the proletariat and the popular masses, the feats and heroism of an endless number of ardent communist militants, it has been fundamentally marked by severe defeats.

In the course of almost all of this, invariably, there was a lack of understanding of this fundamental question, that of the two-line struggle and the mass line. For many decades it has not been able to fully and correctly resolve the crucial and decisive problem for the party, which is that of its ideological and political line, to mobilize, organize, politicize, and arm the masses.

The calamitous situation in which the proletariat and the popular masses of our country have lived and are currently experiencing is not by chance. It is true that in the midst of the defeats the communist party achieved partial successes that were reflected in political gains for the class and the masses. But it is undeniable that the enormous efforts and sacrifices of several generations of revolutionaries and our heroic proletariat until today have not resulted in the complete establishment of the true and authentic Communist Party, and, consequently, of the greatest successes of the revolution. But this is the story of the communist movement in Brazil, of its intricate paths in the midst of the adventures of the class struggle, which will concretely result in the establishment of the authentic revolutionary party of the proletariat in our country and the triumph of the revolution.

In the course of the last century, stormy struggles marked the successive political crises of the scenario of permanent economic and social crisis that characterize the historical process of Brazil, in its condition as a semi-colonial country, submitted to imperialist domination and under the influence of its great reactionary classes of the big bourgeoisie and landowners, sustained in the rotten and bureaucratic Brazilian state.

Even though the PCB has not been able to fully achieve the main goal of constituting itself as a genuine Marxist party, to arm itself with this ideology and the proletarian revolutionary line to conquer political power for the proletariat and the exploited and oppressed masses, the Brazilian communist and revolutionary movement, amidst failures and successes, has accumulated a vast and rich experience, in which the Popular Uprising of ’35 stands out; the sending of volunteers to the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War; the struggle in the harsh conditions of clandestinity; the workers’ struggles of the 1950s; the armed peasant struggles in Porecatú (Paraná) and Trombas and Formoso (Goiás); the Araguaia Guerrilla War; and a large collection of studies on the Brazilian reality. This is an experience that the followers of the great revolutionary cause of the proletariat in the country must critically support.

Action in Porto Alegre Commemorates 99th Anniversary of PCB’s Founding

By the Editorial Board of Tribune of the People

On the day commemorating the founding of the Communist Party of Brazil (PCB), an action was documented in Porto Alegre, where two large banners were hung from a prominent bridge. One banner read, “Long Live the PCB” and the other read, “Long Live Maoism.” Both banners included yellow hammer and sickles.

Tribune of the People salutes the heroic Brazilian people who celebrate this anniversary of their glorious Party and are struggling to reconstitute it with Maoism as its guide, as part of the process of casting off the three mountains of oppression weighing on Brazilian society: imperialism (principally US), bureaucratic capitalism, and semifeudalism and the latifundium (big landlords).

Long live the Efforts to Reconstitute the Communist Party of Brazil!


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